Bashkir popular national costumes
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  • image1 Творческое объединение "Артыш"
  • image2 Творческое объединение "Инзер"
  • image3 Творческое объединение "Чингизхан"
  • image4 Творческое объединение Сары Бия
  • image5 Творческое объединение Март

Bashkir popular national costumes

Bashkir nation was long since famous for its craftsmen whose goods were masterpieces of the popular creativity. The popular costume is the main feature of the national creativity.


Traditional Bashkir costume is a bright determinant of people’s national identity. Typical features of nomadic cattle – breeders characterized the style of the Bashkir costume for a long time. Domestic cloth, fabrics made of various threads, sheepskin, firs were the basic materials for making clothes.

Mostly such colours as red, green, blue and black were used in the production of clothes.

Woman’s Bashkir costume can be compared with a popular book. It was possible to know the status of a woman in the society and her ancestors (for example, if they were hereditary merchants or warriors.) Thus the appearance of a woman could reveal the whole story.

The base of the Bashkir woman’s costume is made of the dress with ruffles decorated with a woven design and embroidery. This dress is worn underclothes. Under the dress women wore wide trousers of traditional Turkish cut. An embroidered camisole in braiding and silver coin was put on the dress.

The principal element of ornamentation was embroidery. It was made in the typical colour spectrum for Bashkir nation: red, green, yellow. The patterns of warm tints were vividly seen on the black velvety or glossed sateen robe – yelyan (елян) and bishmet (бишмет).

One of the significant elements of woman’s costume was breastplates which covered the slit of a dress. The form of breastplates is not identical in different areas: from the form of a triangle to circle, from short to long length till hiplines. Its major attires were artistically liable patterns and gemstones set in silver.

The hats of married women are called “kashmau” (кашмау) and young girls’ hat was “takiya” (такыя). Usually in summer Bashkir girls didn’t wear any hats while grown – ups and women always wore a cotton head kerchief. In winter they wore chekmen (чекмени (сэкмэн), fur coats (тулуп) (толоп). Robes and fur coats were a festive set. The robes were embroided in coloured pattern and decorated with coins and jewellery.
The festive clothes (dress and apron) were made of domestic patterned cloth. Footwear (boots, shoes, galoshes) was made of leather. In nomadic areas nearly all grown-ups wore leather boots. Man’s clothes: in winter men wore fir coats from sheepskin and coats (билле тун, тире тун). Belts were only man’s element in his clothes. Man’s hat was called “tyubeteika”  тюбетейка (тубэтэй). Old men wore hats in black colours while young men’ hats were green, red and blue.

The modern costume in the Bashkir national style
Today a lot of designers of Bashkortostan are guided by popular traditions creating their collections. They use such traditional materials as leather, velvet, silk and precious fir) and also they use some objects of Bashkir origin. Such special sets are created for actors, museums, and modern fashionable women.  

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